There’s a great deal of attention paid to the importance of optimizing the nutritional status of patients before surgery and doing away with NPO requirements to prepare them for the stress of invasive procedures — and rightfully so. Surgery stimulates a cascade of inflammatory metabolic responses that can cause the patient to be in a catabolic state, which can lead to insulin resistance and abdominal discomfort. Patients who fast leading up to surgery are often not prepared for the physical trauma they’re about to endure. But you might not know that even with pre-op nutritional interventions, patients do better after surgery when they eat right during their recoveries. They are what they eat, and their diet affects surgical outcomes.